References
  • 1 Breathnach, A. (2005) Nosocomial infections. Medicine, 33(3), 2226. Cross Ref link
  • 2 Calandra, T. (2000) Practical guide to host defence mechanisms and the predominant infections encountered in immunocompromised patients. In: Glauser, M.P. & Pizzo, P.A. (eds) Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients, Part I. London: W.B. Saunders, pp. 316.
  • 3 Chadwick, P.R., Beards, G., Brown, B., et al. (2000) Management of hospital outbreaks due to small round structured viruses. Journal of Hospital Infection, 45(1), 110. Available at: http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1194947408355 Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 4 Crabtree, A. & Henry, B. (2011) Non‐Pharmaceutical Measures to Prevent Influenza Transmission: The Evidence for Individual Protective Measures. Winnipeg, Canada: National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease.
  • 5 Damani, N.N. (2011) Basic concepts. In: Damani, N.N. Manual of Infection Prevention and Control, 3rd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cross Ref link
  • 6 Department of Trade and Industry (2002) Product Standards: Personal Protective Equipment: Guidance Notes on the UK Personal Protective Equipment Regulations 2002 (S.I. 2002 No. 1144). London: Department of Trade and Industry. Available at: http://www.bis.gov.uk/files/file11263.pdf (archived)
  • 7 DH (2001) Standard principles for preventing hospital‐acquired infection. Journal of Hospital Infection, 47 (Supplement), S21S37. Cross Ref link
  • 8 DH (2006) Health Technical Memorandum 64: Sanitary Assemblies. London: Stationery Office.
  • 9 DH (2007a) Saving Lives: Reducing Infection, Delivering Clean and Safe Care. London: Stationary Office. Available at: www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_078134 (archived)
  • 10 DH (2007b) Health Technical Memorandum 01‐01: Decontamination of Reusable Medical Devices, Part A – Management and Environment (English edition). London: Department of Health.
  • 11 DH (2008) HIV Post‐Exposure Prophylaxis: Guidance from the UK Chief Medical Officers’ Expert Advisory Group on AIDS. London: Department of Health. Available at: www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_089997.pdf (archived)
  • 12 DH (2010a) The Health and Social Care Act 2008: Code of Practice on the Prevention and Control of Infections and Related Guidance. London: Department of Health. Available at: www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/documents/digitalasset/dh_110435.pdf (archived)
  • 13 DH (2010b) Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza: A Summary of Guidance for Infection Control in Healthcare Settings. London: Department of Health. Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/@ps/documents/digitalasset/dh_110899.pdf (archived)
  • 14 DH (2010c) Uniforms and Workwear: Guidance on Uniform and Workwear Policies for NHS Employers. London: Department of Health. www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/@ps/documents/digitalasset/dh_114754.pdf (archived)
  • 15 DH (2013a) Health Technical Memorandum 04‐01 Addendum: Pseudomonas Aeruginosa – Advice for Augmented Care Units. London: Department of Health.
  • 16 DH (2013b) Health Technical Memorandum 07‐01: Safe Management of Healthcare Waste. London: Department of Health. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/167976/HTM_07‐01_Final.pdf
  • 17 DH (2013c) Choice Framework for local Policy and Procedures 01‐04 – Decontamination of linen for health and social care: Guidance for linen processors implementing BS EN 14065. Department of Health, London. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/148539/CFPP_01‐04_BS_EN_Final.pdf
  • 18 DH (2013d) Health Building Note 04‐01 Supplement 1: Isolation Facilities for Infectious Patients in Acute Settings. London: Department of Health. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/148503/HBN_04‐01_Supp_1_Final.pdf
  • 19 DH/HPA (2008) Clostridium Difficile Infection: How to Deal with the Problem. London: Department of Health/Health Protection Agency. Available at: www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1232006607827
  • 20 Dharan, S., Mourouga, P., Copin, P., et al. (1999) Routine disinfection of patients’ environmental surfaces. Myth or reality? Journal of Hospital Infection, 42(2), 113117. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 21 Elliot, T., Worthington, A., Osman, H. & Gill, M. (2007) Lecture Notes: Medical Microbiology and Infection, 4th edn. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • 22 European Parliament (2008) Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives. Official Journal of the European Union, 22 November 2008. Available at: eur‐lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:312:0003:0030:EN:PDF
  • 23 Fishman, J.A. (2011) Infections in immunocompromised hosts and organ transplant recipients: essentials. Liver Transplantation, 17(Supplement 3), S34S37. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 24 Food Safety Act 1990. London: HMSO.
  • 25 Fraise, A.P. & Bradley, T. (eds) (2009) Ayliffe's Control of Healthcare‐Associated Infection: A Practical Handbook, 5th edn. London: Hodder Arnold.
  • 26 Gammon, J. (1998) Analysis of the stressful effects of hospitalisation and source isolation on coping and psychological constructs. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 4(2), 8496. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 27 Gillespie, I.A., O'Brien, S.J., Adak, G.K., et al. (2005) Foodborne general outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 infection, England and Wales, 1992–2002: where are the risks? Epidemiology and Infection, 133(5), 795801. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 28 Gillespie, S. & Bamford, K. (2012) Medical Microbiology and Infection at a Glance, 4th edn. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • 29 Godwin, J.E., Braden, C.D. & Sachdever, K. (2013) Neutropenia. Medscape Medical News, 3 July 2013. Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/204821‐overview
  • 30 Goering, R., Dockrell, H., Zuckermann, M., et al. (2012) Mims’ Medical Microbiology, 5th edn. London: Saunders.
  • 31 Hazardous Waste (England and Wales) Regulations 2005 and the List of Wastes (England) Regulations 2005. London: HMSO.
  • 32 Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974. London: HMSO.
  • 33 Health and Safety Commission (2001) Legionnaires’ Disease: The Control of Legionella Bacteria in Water Systems. Approved Code of Practice and Guidance, 3rd edn (L8). London: Health and Safety Executive.
  • 34 Health and Safety Executive (2005) Personal Protective Equipment at Work (2nd edn): Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 (as amended). London: Health and Safety Executive.
  • 35 Health and Safety Executive (2013) Health and Safety (Sharp Instruments in Healthcare) Regulations 2013. London: Health and Safety Executive.
  • 36 Health Protection Agency (2005) Occupational Transmission of HIV: Summary of Published Reports March 2005 Edition: Data to December 2002. London: Health Protection Agency. Available at: www.hpa.org.uk/webc/hpawebfile/hpaweb_c/1194947320156
  • 37 Health Protection Agency (2008) Eye of the Needle: United Kingdom Surveillance of Significant Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Viruses in Healthcare Workers. London: Health Protection Agency. Available at: www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1227688128096
  • 38 Health Protection Agency (2010a) Results from the Mandatory Surveillance of MRSA Bacteraemia. London: Health Protection Agency. Available at: www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAweb&HPAwebStandard/HPAweb_C/1233906819629
  • 39 Health Protection Agency (2010b) Clostridium Difficile Mandatory Surveillance. London: Health Protection Agency. Available at: www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAweb&HPAwebStandard/HPAweb_C/1179746015058
  • 40 Health Protection Agency (2012) English National Point Prevalence Survey on Healthcare‐associated Infections and Antimicrobial Use, 2011. London: Health Protection Agency. Available at: www.hpa.org.uk/webc/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1317134304594
  • 41 Health Protection Scotland (2009) Standard Infection Control Precautions. Available at: www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/haiic/ic/standardinfectioncontrolprecautions‐sicps.aspx
  • 42 Jeanes, A, Macrae, B. & Ashby, J (2011) Isolation prioritisation tool: revision, adaptation and application. British Journal of Nursing, 20(9), 540544. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 43 Kao, P.H. & Yang, R.J. (2006) Virus diffusion in isolation rooms. Journal of Hospital Infection, 62(3), 338345. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 44 Kerr, L.N., Chaput, M.P., Cash, L.D., et al. (2004) Assessment of the durability of medical examination gloves. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 1(9), 607612. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 45 Korniewicz, D.M., El‐Masri, M., Broyles, J.M., et al. (2002) Performance of latex and nonlatex medical examination gloves during simulated use. American Journal of Infection Control, 30(2), 133138. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 46 Leonas, K.K. (1998) Effect of laundering on the barrier properties of reusable surgical gown fabrics. American Journal of Infection Control, 26(5), 495501. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 47 Lefebvre, S., Waltner‐Toews, D., Peregrine, A., et al. (2006) Prevalence of zoonotic agents in dogs visiting hospitalized people in Ontario: implications for infection control. Journal of Hospital Infection, 62(3), 458466. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 48 Loveday, H., Wilson, J.A., Pratt, R.J., et al. (2014) epic 3: National Evidence‐Based Guidelines for Preventing Healthcare‐Associated Infections in NHS Hospitals in England. Journal of Hospital Infection 86S1, S1S70. Available at: www.his.org.uk/files/3113/8693/4808/epic3_National_Evidence‐Based_Guidelines_for_Preventing_HCAI_in_NHSE.pdf Cross Ref link
  • 49 McGuckin, R., Storr, J., Longtin, Y., et al. (2011) Patient Empowerment and multimodal hand hygiene promotion: a win‐win strategy. American Journal of Medical Quality, 26(1), 1017. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 50 MHRA (2006) DB 2006(04) Single‐use Medical Devices: Implications and Consequences of Reuse. London: Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. Available at: www.mhra.gov.uk
  • 51 MHRA (2010) Guidance notes on medical devices which require sterilization. In: MHRA EC Medical Devices Directives: Guidance for Manufacturers on Clinical Investigations to be Carried Out in the UK, Updated March 2010. London: MHRA, p.4041. Available at: www.mhra.gov.uk
  • 52 Moody, K., Finlay, J., Mancuso, C., et al. (2006) Feasibility and safety of a pilot randomized trial of infection rate: neutropenic diet versus standard food safety guidelines. Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 28(3), 126133. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 53 Morgan, D.J., Diekema, D.J., Sepkowitz, K. & Perencevich, E.N. (2009) Adverse outcomes associated with contact precautions: a review of the literature. American Journal of Infection Control, 37, 8593. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 54 NHS Estates (2001) Infection Control in the Built Environment. London: Stationery Office.
  • 55 NICE (2006) Tuberculosis, CG33. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG33
  • 56 NMC (2010) Record Keeping: Guidance for Nurses and Midwives. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council. Available at: http://www.nmc‐uk.org/Publications/Guidance/
  • 57 NMC (2013) Consent. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council. Available at: http://www.nmc‐uk.org/Nurses‐and‐midwives/Regulation‐in‐practice/Regulation‐in‐Practice‐Topics/consent/
  • 58 NMC (2015) The Code: Standards of Conduct, Performance and Ethics for Nurses and Midwives. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council. Available at: www.nmc‐uk.org
  • 59 NPSA (2008) Patient Safety Alert, Second Edition, 2 September 2008: Clean Hands Save Lives. London: National Patient Safety Agency. Available at: www.nrls.npsa.nhs.uk/resources/type/alerts/?entryid45=59848&q=0%C2%ACclean+hands%C2%AC%20
  • 60 NPSA (2009) Revised Healthcare Cleaning Manual. London: National Patient Safety Agency. Available at: www.nrls.npsa.nhs.uk/EasySiteWeb/getresource.axd?AssetID=61814&type=full&servicetype=Attachment
  • 61 Patel, S. (2005) Minimising cross‐infection risks associated with beds and mattresses. Nursing Times, 101(8), 5253. Pubmed link
  • 62 Perry, C. (2007) Infection Prevention and Control. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • 63 RCN (2010) Infection Prevention and Control. Available at: www.rcn.org.uk/development/practice/infection_control
  • 64 RCN (2012) Tools of the Trade: RCN Guidance for Health Care Staff on Glove Use and the Precention of Contact Dermatitis. Available at: www.rcn.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/450507/RCNguidance_glovesdermatitis_WEB2.pdf
  • 65 Rosenberg, F.A. (2003) The microbiology of bottled water. Clinical Microbiology Newsletter, 25(6), 4144. Cross Ref link
  • 66 Rowley, S. & Clare, S. (2011) ANTT: a standard approach to aseptic technique. Nursing Times, 107(36), 1214. Pubmed link
  • 67 Siegel, J.D., Rhinehart, E., Jackson, M., Chiarello, L. & the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (2007) Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control. Available at: www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/pdf/isolation2007.pdf
  • 68 Smythe, E.T., McIlvenny, G., Enstone, J.E., et al. (2008) Four Country Healthcare Associated Infection Prevalence Survey 2006: overview of the results. Journal of Hospital Infection, 69(3), 230248. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 69 Stobbe, T.J., daRoza, R.A. & Watkins, M.A. (1988) Facial hair and respirator fit: a review of the literature. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 49(4), 199204. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 70 UK Health Departments (1998) Guidance for Clinical Health Care Workers: Protection Against Infection with Blood‐borne Viruses. Recommendations of the Expert Advisory Group on AIDS and the Advisory Group on Hepatitis. London: Department of Health. Available at: www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Lettersandcirculars/Healthservicecirculars/DH_4003818 (archived)
  • 71 Vonberg, R.P, Eckmanns, T., Bruderek, J. et al. (2005) Use of terminal tap water filter systems for prevention of nosocomial legionellosis. Journal of Hospital Infection, 60(2), 159162. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 72 Ward, D. (2000) Infection control: reducing the psychological effects of isolation. British Journal of Nursing, 9(3), 162170. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 73 Weaving, P. (2007) Creutzfeldt‐Jakob disease. British Journal of Infection Control, 8(5), 2629. Cross Ref link
  • 74 WHO (2009a) WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care: First Global Patient Safety Challenge: Clean Care is Safer Care. Geneva: WHO. Available at: whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241597906_eng.pdf
  • 75 WHO (2009b) Glove Use Information Leaflet: Outline of the Evidence and Considerations on Medical Glove use to Prevent Germ Transmission. Geneva: WHO. Available at: www.who.int/gpsc/5may/Glove_Use_Information_Leaflet.pdf
  • 76 Wigglesworth, N. (2003) The use of protective isolation. Nursing Times, 99(7), 26. Pubmed link
  • 77 Wigglesworth, N. & Wilcox, M.H. (2006) Prospective evaluation of hospital isolation room capacity. Journal of Hospital Infection, 63(2), 156161. Cross Ref link Pubmed link
  • 78 Wilson, J. (2006) Infection Control in Clinical Practice, 3rd edn. London: Baillière Tindall.